Traits

Learn what Person Traits are, how they are calculated and how you can use them.

Timothy Davis avatar
Written by Timothy Davis
Updated over a week ago

Overview

What are Traits?

Traits are dynamic attributes calculated from the data within a Person record, designed to facilitate student segmentation and progress tracking. These attributes are essential for creating targeted Campaigns, Workflows, and internal Tasks.

How do Traits work?

Traits are calculated and updated when data is added to the Person record reflecting the most current or relevant attribute values.

For example, the "Active Term" trait is calculated from a student's most recent milestone, application, or form submission. The complete listing of Trait calculations can be found in the following section.

Traits are recalculated when new data is added to the Person record. The Person is queued for recalculation instantly, but it can take several hours to complete and be updated on the student record.

How can I leverage Traits?

Traits can significantly enhance student engagement strategies by allowing for precise tracking and segmentation.

For instance, you could send a targeted email Campaign highlighting the Nursing program's achievements to students who have an Active Major in Nursing and have opened and clicked on at least one email in the past. This ensures your message is relevant and reaches those most likely to be interested.


List of Traits

Active Campus

Description

The Campus that the person is currently associated with based on their Milestones and Applications.

Calculation

first_not_null(first_not_null(applications_campus), intended_campus)

Active Degree

Description

The Degree that the person is currently associated with based on their Milestones and Applications.

Calculation

first_not_null(first_not_null(applications_degree), intended_degree)

Active Funnel Stage

Description

The funnel stage that the person currently in based on their Milestones.

Calculation

first_not_null(milestones_type)

Active Major

Description

The Major that the person is currently associated with based on their Milestones and Applications.

Calculations

first_not_null(first_not_null(milestones_major), first_not_null(applications_major), intended_major)

Active Student Type

Description

The Student Type that the person is currently associated with based on their Milestones and Applications.

Calculations

first_not_null(first_not_null(milestones_student_type), first_not_null(applications_student_type), intended_student_type)

Active Term

Description

The Term that the person is currently associated with based on their Milestones and Applications.

Calculations

first_not_null(first_not_null(milestones_term), first_not_null(applications_term), intended_term)

Date of Last Decision Released

Description

The date of the most recent decision released activity.

Calculation

last(decision_release_date)

Date of Last Email Clicked

Description

The date of the most recent decision released activity.

Calculation

last(email_click_date)

Date of Last Email Delivered

Description

The date of the most recent email delivered activity.

Calculation

last(email_delivered_date)

Date of Last Email Opened

Description

The date of the most recent email open activity.

Calculation

last(email_opened_date)

Date of Last Event Attended

Description

The date of the most recent event attended activity.

Calculation

last(event_attended_date)

Date of Last Event Registration

Description

The date of the most recent event registration activity.

Calculation

last(event_registration_date)

Date of Last External Activity

Description

The date of the most recent external or custom activity.

Calculation

last(activity_date)

Date of Last Form Submitted

Description

The date of the most recent form submission activity.

Calculation

last(form_submitted_date)

Date of Last Pageview

Description

The date of the most recent pageview activity.

Calculation

last(pageview_date)

Date of Last Profile Address Updated

Description

The date of the most recent profile address update activity.

Calculation

last(profile_address_update_date)

Date of Last Profile Email

Description

The date of the most recent profile email update activity.

Calculation

last(profile_email_update_date)

Date of Last Profile Name Updated

Description

The date of the most recent profile name update activity.

Calculation

last(profile_address_update_date)

Date of Last Profile Updated

Description

The date of the most recent profile update activity.

Calculation

last(profile_update_date)

Date of Last SMS Clicked

Description

The date of the most recent SMS clicked activity.

Calculation

last(sms_click_date)

Date of Last SMS Delivered

Description

The date of the most recent SMS delivered activity.

Calculation

last(sms_delivered_date)

Date of Last Task Deleted

Description

The date of the most recent task deleted activity.

Calculation

last(task_deleted_date)

Date of Last User Merged

Description

The date of the most recent user merged activity.

Calculation

last(user_merge_date)

Email Suppression

Description

Boolean indicating if emails to the record are being suppressed. Email Suppression is used to prevent excessive spam errors and ensures a high "trust score" with email platforms.

Calculation

if(
total_pageviews = 0
AND total_logins = 0
AND total_email_clicked = 0
AND total_email_delivered > 10,

TRUE,

FALSE
)

Engagement Score

Description

Categorical representation of a students engagement with the institution.

Options are "Stranger", "Unengaged", "Dormant", "Lurker", "Follower", and "Fan".

Calculation

Engagement Score uses custom calculations not applicable to other traits.

The Engagement Score considers the students behavior across several traits:

date_of_last_email_click
date_of_last_sms_clicked
date_of_last_form_submitted
date_of_last_pageview
date_of_last_event_attended
date_of_last_login
date_of_last_conversation_message

First, a difference calculation finds the days between the date of a given trait and the current date.

days_since_last_login = date_diff('day', date_of_last_login, now())

Then, each trait is scored based on days since the last activity. Scoring can be represented by a JavaScript if() statement for example purposes.

if (days_since_last_pageview <= 7):
pageview_score = 1
elif (days_since_last_pageview <= 14):
pageview_score = 0.75
elif (days_since_last_pageview <= 30):
pageview_score = 0.5
elif (days_since_last_pageview <= 60):
pageview_score = 0.25
elif (days_since_last_pageview > 60):
pageview_score = 0.1

Each trait score is then added and divided by the total number of trait scores. The result is a numeric engagement score.

engagement_score = float(email_score + sms_score + form_score + login_score + pageview_score + event_score + conversation_score)/7

A "no engagement" score is also calculated and will later be used to determine if any engagement has happened at all.

no_engagement = total_email_delivered_events + total_sms_delivered_events

Finally, scores are categorized based on the engagement score and "no engagement" score. This can be represented by a JavaScript if() statement for example purposes.

if (engagement_score >= 0.33):
return 'FAN'
elif (.33 > engagement_score >= 0.2):
return 'FOLLOWER'
elif (0.2 > engagement_score >= 0.05):
return 'LURKER'
elif (0.05 > engagement_score > 0):
return 'DORMANT'
elif (engagement_score = 0 OR user-milestones-unsubscribe-date exists):
return 'UNENGAGED'
elif (engagement_score = 0 OR no_engagement = 0):
return 'STRANGER'

First Application

Description

The first application that the person started.

Calculation

first(application_name)

First Pageview URL

Description

The URL of the first website page the person viewed.

Calculation

first(pageview_url)

First Source

Description

The name of the person's first Source by date.

Calculation

first(source_name)

First Source Description

Description

The description of the person's first Source by date.

Calculation

first(source_description)

First Source Type

Description

The description of the person's first Source by date.

Calculation

first(source_type)

Furthest Funnel Stage

Description

The most advanced Milestone that person has achieved.

Calculation

last(milestone)

Last Form Submitted

Description

The name of the most recent form the person submitted.

Calculation

last(form_submitted_name)

Last Pageview URL

Description

The URL of the most recent website page the person has viewed.

Calculation

last(pageview_url)

Last Seen City

Description

The city of the most recent activity with geographic information.

Note: Geographic information about activities is derived from the person's device.

Calculation

last(activity_city)

Last Seen Country

Description

The country of the most recent activity with geographic information.

Calculation

last(activity_country)

Last Seen Region

Description

The state or region of the most recent activity with geographic information.

Calculation

last(activity_region)

Last Seen Timezone

Description

The timezone of the most recent activity with geographic information.

Calculation

last(activity_timezone)

Last Submitted App

Description

The name of the most recent application the person has submitted.

Calculation

last(application_submitted)

Last Touchpoint

Description

The name of the most recent touchpoint activity for the person.

Note: "Touchpoints" are a subset of all activities. See more.

Calculation

last(touchpoint)

Last User Activity

Description

The name of the most recent user-initiated activity for the person.

Note: "User" activities are a subset of all activities. See more.

Calculation

last(user_activity)

Preferred Open Time

Description

Categorical representation of the most common time a student opens Email and SMS messages.

Options are "Morning", "Day", "Afternoon", "Evening", "Night", and "Late-Night".

Calculation

Preferred Open Time uses custom calculations not applicable to other traits.

First, the local hour of the activity is categorized. This can be represented as a SQL case statement for example purposes.

case
when activity_local_hour > 4AM and < 9AM then "Morning"
when activity_local_hour > 9AM and < 1PM then "Day"
when activity_local_hour > 1PM and < 5PM then "Afternoon"
when activity_local_hour > 5PM and < 9PM then "Evening"
when activity_local_hour > 9PM and < 12AM then "Night"
when activity_local_hour > 12AM and < 4AM then "Late-Night"
end

Activities are then counted by category. The category with the most activities is considered the preferred open time.

Total Applications

Description

Total number of application started activities for the person.

Calculation

total(application_started)

Total Completed Tasks

Description

Total number of tasks completed for the person.

Calculation

total(task_completed)

Total Email Opens

Description

Total number of email open activities for the person.

Calculation

total(email_opened)

Total Events Attended

Description

Total number of event attended activities for the person.

Calculation

total(event_attended)

Total Forms Submitted

Description

Total number of form submission activities for the person.

Calculation

total(form_submitted)

Total Open Tasks

Description

Total number of tasks opened or in progress for the person.

Calculation

total(task_created) - total(task_completed)

Total SMS Delivered

Description

Total number of SMS delivered activities for the person.

Calculation

total(sms_delivered)

Total Sources

Description

Total number of sources for the person.

Calculation

total(sources)

Total Tasks

Description

Total number of tasks for the person.

Calculation

total(tasks_created)

Total Unique Emails Clicked

Description

Total number of email click activities per campaign.

Calculation

total( unique(email_clicked_campaign) )

Total Unique Emails Opened

Description

Total number of email open activities per campaign.

Calculation

total( unique(email_opened_campaign) )

Total Unique SMS Clicks

Description

Total number of SMS click activities per campaign.

Calculation

total( unique(sms_clicked_campaign) )

Total User Login Events

Description

Total number of login activities for the person.

Calculation

total(user_login)

Type of Last Custom Activity

Description

The type of the most recent custom activity for the person.

Calculation

last(custom_activity_type)

Unique Email Open Rate

Description

The rate of unique open for unique emails delivered.

Calculation

rate( unique(email_open_campaign), unique(email_delivered_campaign) )


Calculation Descriptions

Traits use one or more calculations to derive a value, which are reused across multiple traits. For example, Total Events Attended and Total Tasks both use the 'total' calculation.

Note: These are not the exact formulas used in calculating traits, but are representative for the purpose of documentation.

Exists

Given a data object or array, returns TRUE if the object exists or the array is not empty.

First

Given a set of timestamped data objects, returns an attribute of the object with the oldest date.

First Not Null

Given a set of data objects, returns an attribute of the first object where the attribute appears.

Last

Given a set of timestamped data objects, returns an attribute of the object with the most recent date.

Rate

Given two sets of activities, find the count of each and return the division of the larger from the smaller

Total

Counts all items of a specific data type and returns a number.

Unique

Given a set of data objects, returns a set of unique items, ensuring each item is listed only once.


Understanding Milestones, Touchpoints, and User Activities

Milestones

Milestones in Element451 are organized based on their expected sequence in the admission process, as opposed to an arbitrary ordering. Here's how they work:

  • Automatically Generated Milestones: As students move through Forms, Applications, and Decisions, most Milestones (except for "Enroll") are automatically created by Element451. This includes "Created" and "Application Completed."
    ​

  • Manually Generated Milestones: The Milestones "Checklist Complete," "Application Decision," "Graduate," and "Enroll" must be manually generated or imported.

View a complete ordered list of Milestones

  1. Enroll

  2. Deposit

  3. Withdraw

  4. Deferred

  5. Admit

  6. Conditional Admit

  7. Waitlist

  8. Denied

  9. Hold

  10. Application Submit

  11. Application Start

  12. Prospect

  13. (Created, Application Completed, Checklist Complete, Application Decision, Graduate)

Touchpoints

Touchpoints refer to activities connected to a person, initiated either by staff (Element451 internal users) or automation within Element451.
​

View a complete list of Touchpoints

  • Decision Assignment Updated

  • Decision Checklist Item Added

  • Decision Checklist Item Removed

  • Decision Checklist Item Updated

  • Decision Criteria Deleted

  • Decision Criteria Updated

  • Decision Note Added

  • Decision Note Deleted

  • Decision Note Updated

  • Decision Stage Updated

  • Decision Status Updated

  • Decision Released

  • Email Delivered

  • External Activity Completed

  • SMS Delivered

  • Survey Key Created

  • Survey Response Completed

  • Task Created

  • Task Assigned

  • User Created

  • User Profile Address Updated

  • User Profile Email Updated

  • User Profile Milestones Updated

  • User Profile Name Updated

  • User Profile Updated

User Activities

User Activities detail actions initiated by the person, distinguishing them from Touchpoints. These include any interaction or step taken by the person, like engaging with applications or communications.

View a complete list of User Activities

  • Application Completed

  • Application Paid

  • Application Registration Successful

  • Application Submitted

  • Appointment Attended

  • Appointment Canceled

  • Appointment Scheduled

  • Appointment Updated

  • Email Clicked

  • Email Complaint

  • Email Delivered

  • Email Inbound Received

  • Email Opened

  • Email Unsubscribed

  • Event Marked Attended

  • Event Registration Canceled

  • Event Registration Successful

  • Form Submitted

  • Pageview

  • Recommendation Requested

  • SMS Clicked

  • SMS Delivered

  • SMS Inbound Received

  • Supplemental Form Submitted

  • Survey Answered

  • Survey Key Created

  • Survey Key Opened

  • Survey Response Completed

  • Survey Response Saved

  • User Created

  • User Forgot Password

  • User Login

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